After those disappointing growth figures, there’s no bigger issue in politics today than growth. Where is it going to come from, what are the limits of the governments responsibility and what should it be doing? These question could dominate the rest of this Parliament. And now Nick Clegg has delivered his big speech on growth.
This page is an annotated version of the speech with my comments in red. For most politicians, its a lot easier to read their speech that way than to wade through the code undigested. And theres a conclusion at the end.
Nick Clegg: Building a New Economy
Fri, 04 Feb 2011
Speech to a Carbon Capture and Storage plant in Rotherham.
I am grateful to be here with a group of businesses who are at the forefront of the UK’s drive to build a new economy.
I will be saying more about the specific issue of carbon capture and storage, and our plans for a green economy, in a moment.
First I want to make some remarks about the Government’s approach to economic growth – and about the kind of economy we want to grow. This is of course a topical question in light of last week’s disappointing figures for GDP growth.
We are under no illusions in the Government about the difficult economic circumstances that we inherited from Labour. The Chancellor and the Governor of the Bank of England have said that recovery from the recession is likely to be ‘choppy’ for some time. The Prime Minister and I have both said that the nation faces a long, hard road back to prosperity.
Here we have two of the Coalitions Holy Trinity of economic arguments. That they inherited a mess from Labour and that recovery will be “choppy”. Both are effectively ways of writing yourself a blank cheque. For if the mess is really horrific, then that explains everything horrid that happens in the coming years. And – in the midst of it all – there is no way of distinguishing choppiness on the way to a strong recovery from, simply, a feeble recovery. So both are ways of deferring criticism.
It is perhaps worth saying that there are also some strongly positive signals in the economy. During the course of this week, we have seen the publication of three sets of important economic indicators on manufacturing, construction and services – all moving in a positive direction. Things are difficult, but it is not all bad news.
But then he blinks! Leaning on these little bits of data, admittedly good in themselves, is a bit like grasping at straws. If choppiness is to be expected, why not leave it at that?
But let me also assure you that we are determined on our course of action to tackle the deficit. The outgoing Labour Chief Secretary to the Treasury said in his now famous parting note that ‘there was no money left’. Of course it was much worse than that. They left us well and truly in the red. This year we’ll be spending over £43bn just on the interest on our debts.
Ah, heres the third of the Trinity, the deficit. Whatever your view on that – the defining debate of the moment – I fear the drama of the cuts is obscuring the need for deeper analysis.
That’s £830m per week. Just under £119m a day. For that money, we could build a new primary school every hour. We could buy a new Chinook helicopter every day. We could take 11 million people out of paying income tax. We could triple the number of doctors in our hospitals.
But the broader point I want to stress today is that the deficit and debt left by Labour are simply the most obvious symptoms of a much deeper economic malaise. When the financial crisis struck, the economy was fragile, founded on personal and state debt rather than investment; lopsided in favour of financial services and the South East; and overly-reliant on carbon consumption rather than green growth.
All coventional wisdom except the last point. But remember – hes speaking at a carbon capture plant…
Labour’s economy was weak, and this weakness was exposed when the financial storms came.
So the Coalition Government is determined to eliminate the deficit. But let me be clear: paying off the deficit is a means to an end, not an end in itself. We are determined to foster a new model of economic growth, and a new economy – one built on enterprise and investment, not unsustainable debt. We seek nothing less than a new model of sustainable growth.
“A new model of economic growth”? Like Cameron, Clegg seems to have a taste for vaulting rhetoric when he dabbles in economics. Its slightly disorienting. If he just says “different from Labour” (which is what I suspect he really means), we can start to analyse the differences. But “a new model of economic growth” suggests sweeping radicalism that defies the plodding of mere assessment. Im dubious this promise will be fulfilled.
Paying off the deficit is a vital part of our plan for growth. Necessary for restoring confidence in Britain; necessary for keeping down the cost of borrowing for families and business; necessary to avoid paying extra interest to the bond markets. Necessary – but not sufficient. If the Coalition Government simply pays off the deficit, but leaves the underlying economy unchanged, we will have failed.
Since the depressing growth figures, the line coming from Conservatives has mostly been narrow almost to the point of Thatcherite – that paying off the deficit is the route to growth. Clegg is going beyond that, but not necessarily against it.
We are not in Government simply to clean up Labour’s mess. We are in Government to lay the foundations for a better, stronger economy. People want their politicians to be leaders, not accountants.
It is important to be crystal clear about the problems we are addressing. Most people know that we inherited a crippling deficit. But perhaps it is not yet clear enough that we also inherited a failed economic model. The model of economic growth based on debt and on financial services is broken for good. So the Coalition is undertaking two very difficult tasks at the same time – dealing with the deficit and building a new model of economic growth.
To disentangle: debt and financial services were indeed two huge features of the economy under Labour. They provided much of the income that enabled the spending of the Labour years. But this is not enough to define Labours approach to the economy. For it still leaves the question of what Labour did with the money and the markets and what they were trying to achieve.
Let me say too that as Government, we are determined to get this right. It is very tempting in a time of economic difficulty for governments to churn out initiative after initiative, in a desperate attempt to stimulate the economy or – all too often – to try and give the appearance of doing so. And politicians can fall prey to the myth that somewhere there is a lever they can pull to generate growth, and that they should simply pull as many as possible in the hope of finding it.
I doubt Clegg intended this to be read as a message telling Richard Lambert to get lost. But thats how it reads. If the CBI wants a department for growth focussing relentlessly on what it can do to help the economy grow, it is misguided.
The last Government introduced, in the name of economic growth, over 3,000 publicly-funded schemes aimed at business support and an almost monthly diet of tax breaks and so-called ‘business solutions’.
And the result of all this activity and spending? In the first decade of this century – all years in which Labour was in power – growth was the slowest since any decade since the 1960s. Over the past decade, business investment has grown by just one per cent a year, a quarter of what it was in the 1990s.
Of course I am not claiming that all of the previous Government’s schemes were ineffective. Many were valued and valuable. My point is that we have to do a very much better job of targeting public money in a way that has a genuine impact on economic growth.
Yes, that is a central, tricky question. Lets hear the ideas.
That is why the Government is currently conducting a growth review, consulting with businesses and economists to ensure that our approach is grounded, evidence-based and properly thought-through. Some have expressed concern that we haven’t published it yet, and that we are waiting for the Budget. I do not think we should apologise for treating this issue with the utmost seriousness.
We need to be clear about the fundamental factors that drive economy growth; clear about the areas in which government can effectively play a role; and clear about the interventions than make the most difference.
That sounds good.
We need, in short, a grown-up approach to growth, based on hard-headed analysis – in place of the ‘pick and mix’ approach that has characterised too much recent government activity, grabbing at instant initiatives rather than taking the big decisions that really count.
There are four important steps we need to take to build a new economy:
- Weaning ourselves off debt-financed growth, and onto investment-led prosperity;
This is straight out of the Mervyn King playbook. As such, it is less a programme for the future than an acceptance of our predicament: our chances of another credit-fuelled boom are nil.
- Investing in the ‘hard’ infrastructure that underpins growth, such as transport;
Is there any UK government since our grandparents grandparents that has not done this on a significant scale?
- Cultivating the ‘soft‘ infrastructure made up of knowledge, skills and education that businesses need; and
This again is not new. Labour was interested in similar things. But it could be important. Vince Cable has spoken previously about the OECD consensus that nations should continue to invest more in these areas even while cutting deficits. That would be an abrupt U-turn as the Coalition is currently making cuts here.
- Balancing regions and sectors, instead of putting all our economic eggs in one basket
This is new, in the sense that no government Ive known (Thatcher on) has attempted it. And it is big. What could be better than a bigger, stronger manufacturing sector? But doing it would require huge efforts by government (eg as outlined here by Will Hutton). Mind you, politicians of all parties have been talking about it for about two years now. And its not got beyond the rhetorical.
Investment, not debt
We have learned – the hard way – that an economy built on debt is built on sand. Right now we are going through the sometimes painful process of unwinding a toxic legacy of personal, business and public debt.
The Government is also committed to the creation of a Green Investment Bank, with funds of at least £1 billion, to enhance the necessary investment in low-carbon growth, in a sound economy built to last. We’ll be able to say more about this vital new institution in the coming weeks too.
The second element in our drive to build a new economy is to focus on the hard infrastructure that underpins growth. It is clear from the economic evidence that the key function of government, beyond creating the right macroeconomic environment, is to support investment in the infrastructure that makes economic activity possible.
That is why this government has pressed ahead with plans for High Speed Rail 2, and with investments in Crossrail.
That is why we are planning to provide the best superfast broadband network in Europe by 2015, with the Government providing £530m of investment over the Spending Review period to support private sector investment – including in some of the most remote areas of the UK
And that is why, in our National Infrastructure Plan – the first to be produced by a UK government – we have established an expert review into improving the flow of private investment into some of our key infrastructure sectors. The review is ongoing, as part of the Government’s wider growth review, and is drawing on the advice of three well-respected experts in the area: Dieter Helm, from the University of Oxford; Mike Toms, of Oxera; and Tim Stone, chairman and founder of KPMGs Global Infrastructure and Projects Group.
We also know that the nation’s knowledge base, and the skills of our workers, is a vital component of growth. The importance of investing in this ‘soft infrastructure’ – the third key step towards a new model of economic growth growth – explains a number of decisions taken by the Coalition:
Fourth,the new economy will also need to be radically rebalanced. For too long, we have allowed the economy to be dependent on certain regions and certain sectors. A sound economy is built on diverse, strong regions and diverse, strong sectors. I am delighted that even as the economy struggles out of recession, that the recent data on manufacturing is so strong.
We have created a £1.4 billion Regional Growth Fund, specifically tasked with stimulating sustainable private sector growth, particularly in those regions most dependent on the public sector;
Carbon Capture and Storage
I would now like to say something specific about Carbon Capture and Storage.
CCS will play an enormously important part in the new, rebalanced economy. It is an industry of the future; taking the best of British talents in manufacturing, engineering and research; using our natural resources; and spreading growth – green, sustainable growth – across all corners of the UK.
As Rachel explained earlier, the Coalition Government has committed to four commercial-scale projects. In the Spending Review we allocated £1bn in capital expenditure to the first demonstration project – the largest such commitment to a single project anywhere in the world – despite the immense strain on the public purse.
Because the Coalition Government understands that if we invest in CCS now, if we get this right, we can create export opportunities of up to £6.5bn a year by 2030. We could create and sustain up to 100,000 new, high skilled jobs. And, at the same time, we can massively cut our carbon emissions. And, make no mistake, this isn’t simply well-meaning environmentalism. This is hard-headed economics. We know that, without CCS, halving global emissions by 2050 will be 70% more expensive.
So: we need an economy that is sustainable – environmentally sustainable, of course, but economically sustainable too. An economy built on investment, not debt; on world-class infrastructure and world-class skills; and on regional balance and diversity.
Right now, our deficit reduction plans are inevitably taking political centre stage. And nobody should be in any doubt of our determination as a Coalition Government to stick to those plans.
But as I have argued today, our ambitions go far beyond deficit reduction. We are equally determined to set our economy on a new course; to fuel growth in a new, more balanced way; and to replace the old, debt-ridden economy with a new one, based on investment, export and sustainability.
The old economy got burned down in the financial crisis. But a new economy might be able to rise, Phoenix-like, from the ashes of the old.
“So Britain does need a whole new model of economic growth, where we save and invest for the future, instead of building our economy on debt.
An economy where we sell our goods and services to China and the rest of Asia, instead of simply borrowing from them in order to buy the things they make for us.
But let’s be clear – when you ask the Chancellor of the Exchequer the question ‘where is the growth going to come from?’ – there is not some lever in my office I can pull to get the answer.
Because actually the answer is that the growth will come from you, the businesses of Britain.”
- “Weaning ourselves off debt-financed growth, and onto investment-led prosperity” – the bedrock orthodoxy of the Coalition. Ed Balls could happily sign up to the second bit. But the first bit implies everything is Labours fault.
- “Investing in the ‘hard’ infrastructure that underpins growth, such as transport” – Everyone believes in this. But Labour was spending a lot more on it than the Coalition plans to.
- “Cultivating the ‘soft‘ infrastructure made up of knowledge, skills and education that businesses need” – Ditto.
- “Balancing regions and sectors, instead of putting all our economic eggs in one basket” – Its not clear really where Osborne stands on this. Before the election he did advocate rebalancing. But since then he has passed up every opportunity to speak in favour of sectoral rebalancing, while at the same time not actually ruling it out. The Budget on 23 March will be the moment when he has to show his hand. Labour also likes the language of rebalancing. And once again, it was spending a lot more on attempting both regional and sectoral rebalancing than the Coalition is planning to.