A Europe-wide approach to misconduct could take many forms, say Sandra Bendiscioli and Michele Garfinkel
For decades, European institutions have struggled to handle allegations and investigations of research misconduct. In some countries, institutes and individual researchers must manage alone. Others have established national frameworks to help institutions protect research integrity and limit misconduct. A few have set up national bodies to support or carry out investigations.
But everywhere, universities and research centres are primarily responsible for investigating misconduct by their researchers. They vary in their capacity and willingness to do this.